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Forum for discussion on communal (or public) emergency excreta disposal technical options, hard ground, high water tables, floods, flat pack latrines, floating latrines, flying latrines, defecation fields, trench latrines, etc.

High Water Table Sanitation

Postby andypeal » 10 Mar 2010 12:43

I am putting together training materials for RedR on sanitation options in locations with a high water table. I would like to include some case studies and am looking for examples from the field.

Ideally these would be from emergency situations but I would be interested in hearing of any succesful (or unsuccesful) approaches where a high water table was encountered. The brief excludes flooding above ground.

Thanks and regards,
Andy Peal
Independent Consultant

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Re: High Water Table Sanitation

Postby Suresh » 17 Mar 2010 08:16

Dear Andy,
Here in the Philippines were working in and around a marshy area where GWL is high. At this stage we only elevate the septic tank and the structure. I would be happy to know if there any other technologies are applied, it should be low cost.
Thanks

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Re: High Water Table Sanitation

Postby CarlBrunner » 29 Mar 2010 00:13

Andy, there's a ton of presentation's on sanitation in areas with high water tables on the Oxfam GB Public Health Engineering CD-ROM. Some of them are quite large so I'll PDF them and attached them here.

CAMBODIA FLOOD 2001a.ppt
(3.15 MiB) Downloaded 744 times


Excreta Disposal in Floods.ppt
(8.17 MiB) Downloaded 542 times


General flood presentation (Oxfam GB).pdf
(5.28 MiB) Downloaded 563 times


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Re: High Water Table Sanitation

Postby ooaluko » 14 May 2010 13:54

Yes, there are so many technological options for difficult terrains such as rocky and high water table locations. However, the culture, belief and practices of the people are important and should be considered in design of appropriate solution that would be used by the people through DRA strategies. This is enjoying wide applications and acceptance globally though there is room for finetuning and improvement on exisiting design options.
I see Ecosan more as a concept rather than technologies which promote closing the loop and, processing and reuse of end products for agricultural purposes.
Regards

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Re: High Water Table Sanitation

Postby Bubbles » 15 May 2010 03:33

Here are some shit tank latrines that agencies are installing in Haiti. Not really for high water tables, more because of the urban environment (concrete jungle) and restriction on excavation from land owners. The shit tank latrines are emptied by desludging trucks every couple of weeks.

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Latrine MSF Haiti 3.jpg
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Re: High Water Table Sanitation

Postby Raymond » 16 May 2010 19:24

Andy, In Myanmar, the NGO emergency latrine solution consisted of making bamboo lined pits with pour flush slabs. In most cases the lined pits were offset. Here are some emergency latrines built by Oxfam GB.

latrines.jpg
latrines.jpg (27.46 KiB) Viewed 8551 times

Many people seeing these latrines will think 'oh my goodness, these latrines are contaminating the groundwater and are going to cause an diarrheal disease epidemic'. However, what you have to understand is that in most high water table environments, the water table is already heavily contaminated so actually adding more faecal pathogens makes little difference in terms of pathogen loading.

In the case of Myanmar, the drinking water source (in this case rainwater from year round rainwater harvesting) is isolated from the contaminated surface water, so making latrines directly into the water table posed no risk to public health and was the simplest and easiest way to establish effective sanitation systems.

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Re: High Water Table Sanitation

Postby HappyPlumber » 16 May 2010 19:27

A picture from an Oxfam presentation on high water table sanitation.

High Water Table (Oxfam).jpg
High Water Table (Oxfam).jpg (27.82 KiB) Viewed 8550 times


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WASH Country Experience: Albania, Afghanistan, Burundi, Chad, DRC, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Indonesia, Myanmar, N. Caucasus, Pakistan, Sudan, Thailand, Tibet
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